(1874 - 1963)
Biography of Robert Frost
Robert Lee Frost, b. San Francisco, Mar. 26,
1874, d. Boston, Jan. 29, 1963, was one of America's leading
20th-century poets and a four-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize.
An essentially pastoral poet often associated with rural New
England, Frost wrote poems whose philosophical dimensions
transcend any region. Although his verse forms are traditional -
he often said, in a dig at arch rival
Carl Sandburg, that he would as soon play tennis without a net
as write free verse - he was a pioneer in the interplay of rhythm
and meter and in the poetic use of the vocabulary and inflections
of everyday speech. His poetry is thus both traditional and
experimental, regional and universal.
After his father's death in 1885, when young
Frost was 11, the family left California and settled in
Massachusetts. Frost attended high school in that state, entered
Dartmouth College, but remained less than one semester.
Returning to Massachusetts, he taught school
and worked in a mill and as a newspaper reporter. In 1894 he sold
"My Butterfly: An Elegy"
to The Independent, a New York literary journal. A year later he
married Elinor White, with whom he had shared valedictorian honors
at Lawrence (Mass.) High School. From 1897 to 1899 he attended
Harvard College as a special student but left without a degree. Over the next ten years he wrote (but rarely
published) poems, operated a farm in Derry, New Hampshire
(purchased for him by his paternal grandfather), and supplemented
his income by teaching at Derry's Pinkerton Academy.In 1912, at the age of 38, he sold the farm and
used the proceeds to take his family to England, where he could
devote himself entirely to writing. His efforts to establish
himself and his work were almost immediately successful. A
Boy's Will was accepted by a London publisher and brought out
in 1913, followed a year later by North of Boston. Favorable
reviews on both sides of the Atlantic resulted in American
publication of the books by Henry Holt and Company, Frost's
primary American publisher, and in the establishing of Frost's
As part of his determined efforts on his own
behalf, Frost had called on several prominent literary figures
soon after his arrival in England. One of these was
who wrote the first American review of Frost's verse for Harriet
Munroe's Poetry magazine. (Though he disliked Pound, Frost was
later instrumental in obtaining Pound's release from long
confinement in a Washington, D.C., mental hospital.) Frost was
more favorably impressed and more lastingly influenced by the
so-called Georgian poets Lascelles Abercrombie, Rupert Brooke, and
T. E. Hulme, whose rural subjects and style were more in keeping
with his own. While living near the Georgians in Gloucestershire,
Frost became especially close to a brooding Welshman named Edward
Thomas, whom he urged to turn from prose to poetry. Thomas did so,
dedicating his first and only volume of verse to Frost before his
death in World War I.
The Frosts sailed for the United States in
February 1915 and landed in New York City two days after the U.S.
publication of North of Boston (the first of his books to be published in
America). Sales of that book and of A Boy's Will enabled
Frost to buy a farm in Franconia, N.H.; to place new poems in
literary periodicals and publish a third book, Mountain
Interval (1916); and to embark on a long career of writing,
teaching, and lecturing. In 1924 he received a Pulitzer Prize in
poetry for New Hampshire (1923). He was lauded again for Collected Poems (1930),
A Further Range (1936) and A
Witness Tree (1942). Over the years he received an
unprecedented number and range of literary, academic, and public
Frost's importance as a poet derives from the
power and memorability of particular poems.
The Death of the Hired Man (from
North of Boston)
combines lyric and dramatic poetry in blank verse.
After Apple-Picking (from the same volume) is a free-verse
dream poem with philosophical undertones.
Mending Wall (also published in
North of Boston)
demonstrates Frost's simultaneous command of lyrical verse,
dramatic conversation, and ironic commentary.
The Road Not Taken,
Mountain Interval) and the oft-studied
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (from
exemplify Frost's ability to join the pastoral and philosophical
modes in lyrics of unforgettable beauty.
The poetic and political conservatism of Frost
caused him to lose favor with some literary critics, but his
reputation as a major poet is secure. He unquestionably succeeded
in realizing his life's ambition: to write "a few poems it will be
hard to get rid of."
Biography by: Biography written by The Academic American
Encyclopedia, © 1995 Grolier Electronic Publishing. Compiled and
hyperlinked by Gunnar Bengtsson, 2000.
"In White": Frost's
Early Version Of Design
spider like a snow drop white
On a white Heal-all, holding up a moth
Like a white piece of lifeless satin cloth -
Saw ever curious eye so strange a sight? -
Portent in little, assorted death and blight
Like the ingredients of a witches' broth? -
The beady spider, the flower like a froth,
And the moth carried like a paper kite.
What had that flower to do with being white,
The blue prunella every child's delight.
What brought the kindred spider to that height?
(Make we no thesis of the miller's plight.)
What but design of darkness and of night?
Design, design! Do I use the word aright?
A Boundless Moment
in the wind, and -- what was that
Far in the maples, pale, but not a ghost?
He stood there bringing March against his thought,
And yet too ready to believe the most.
"Oh, that's the Paradise-in-bloom," I said;
And truly it was fair enough for flowers
had we but in us to assume in march
Such white luxuriance of May for ours.
We stood a moment so in a strange world,
Myself as one his own pretense deceives;
And then I said the truth (and we moved on).
A young beech clinging to its last year's leaves.
For once, then
taught me with having knelt at well-curbs
Always wrong to the light, so never seeing
Deeper down in the well than where the water
Gives me back in a shining surface picture
Me myself in the summer heaven godlike
Looking out of a wreath of fern and cloud puffs.
Once, when trying with chin against a well-curb,
I discerned, as I thought, beyond the picture,
Through the picture, a something white, uncertain,
Something more of the depths--and then I lost it.
Water came to rebuke the too clear water.
One drop fell from a fern, and lo, a ripple
Shook whatever it was lay there at bottom,
Blurred it, blotted it out. What was that whiteness?
Truth? A pebble of quartz? For once, then, something.
A Late Walk
When I go
up through the mowing field,
The headless aftermath,
Smooth-laid like thatch with the heavy dew,
Half closes the garden path.
And when I come to the garden ground,
The whir of sober birds
Up from the tangle of withered weeds
Is sadder than any words
A tree beside the wall stands bare,
But a leaf that lingered brown,
Disturbed, I doubt not, by my thought,
Comes softly rattling down.
I end not far from my going forth
By picking the faded blue
Of the last remaining aster flower
To carry again to you.
Fire and Ice
the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I've tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice.
As I came
to the edge of the woods,
Thrush music -- hark!
Now if it was dusk outside,
Inside it was dark.
Too dark in the woods for a bird
By sleight of wing
To better its perch for the night,
Though it still could sing.
The last of the light of the sun
That had died in the west
Still lived for one song more
In a thrush's breast.
Far in the pillared dark
Thrush music went --
Almost like a call to come in
To the dark and lament.
But no, I was out for stars;
I would not come in.
I meant not even if asked;
And I hadn't been.
A Patch of Old Snow
patch of old snow in a corner
That I should have guessed
Was a blow-away paper the rain
Had brought to rest.
It is speckled with grime as if
Small print overspread it,
The news of a day I've forgotten --
If I ever read it.
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